Data acquisition - Psychological Test based on Lüscher Colour Test and Semantic Differential
Within the test students and / or teachers are using an internet application based in the cloud, which uses words to stimulate reactions performed by selecting colours. The words are calibrated to have significant meaning for the school environment. The colours are the same, as used within the Lüscher Colour Test , the difference is, that they are not presented as homogenous colours but as spheres. We have also changed the presentation in that the colours are formed in a circle surrounding the impulse word rather than in an original Lüscher layout. During the diagnostics the spheres also change positions in order to maximise the authenticity of the colour selections.
Correlation analysis is used to identify correlations of resulting reactions to inpulses (words). Within survey, we correlate how close are responses of a group towards selected impulse words (or groups of words). We can correlate even "Mathematics" and "Myself".
The above graph shows an example of the correlations of the reactions of all students for Mathematics. Each column shows a correlation between two words: e.g. Mathematics and Certificate, Mathematics and I can, and Mathematics and Praise etc.
Correlations over 70 mean that the group perceives both correlated words commonly. For example if there are Mathematics and Repetition over 70, if we would ask the class whether repetition is used within the classes, many of the students would reply that repetition is an integral part of the lesson.
Correlations over 80 mean that for the same question only a few students would not mention repetition as repeatedly occurring within the lesson.
We consider the top highest correlations over 75. For example the highest scoring correlations above are Classes, Repetition, Oral Exam, and Teachers Explanation. This is how the students perceive the most significant interactions within Mathematics in the school. If the pedagogy needed to change we would suggest a change to another method of teaching.
Another analysis we provide is in used within the Interplay of relationships, where we evaluate which colour triplets the most used with specific words, and, again, correlate within the group. During our research we have found that we can identify 8 types of relationship types (see below).
This graph shows an example of a teaching "for the teacher".
As you can see, many associations that we have measured with MATHEMATICS are functional for the future skills of the students. "Exams", "I am punished", "Exam", "Repetition", "Teachers", it is the "I am punished", that makes the difference in the class. Teaching can be made more attractive if the teacher is not using the "punishing" interactions. This graph shows an example of a similar teaching, but this time "for the class".
On the contrary to the previous graph, the correlations here show mostly the same words, we can see "Repetition", "Oral exams", "Teachers", and more, however instead of "I am punished" the correlations show "I am learning" and "I think together" with "I talk" and "Group work". This can be interpreted as a more effective way of teaching and learning than in the previous graph, because "I think" and "I talk" are there together with "Group work" and "I am learning".
Usually the results of the correlation analysis can be most effectively interpreted by the school staff because they know their school the best. Good advice is to let the school insider create a sentence using the specified words and listen carefully.
Overall effectivity of teaching and learning - the concept
Our explanation of the effectivity of teaching and learning is as follows; without effective learning, the students can end up with knowledge, but not necessarily with the needed skills and competences in the subject. How does this make a difference in a real world? Imagine a student "knowing" information about the subject while another has an "understanding" of the subject and is able to actively use the principles of the subject.
Our results can provide a measurement, which shows the dependency of the effectivity of teaching and learning on six key school factors:
- The school environment,
- The teachers,
- The teaching,
- The subjects,
- The school management and the process of evaluation of teaching,
- The school management tools and
- The opportunities of further career opportunities.
Effective teaching and learning should be applied differently according to the age of the students. Our measurements give a reference on the APPROPRIATENESS of the teaching for the specific age of the students.
Interplay of relationships - the concept
The explanation of the interplay of relationships (class / teachers/ non-teaching staff / school environment) is as follows;
Within this topic we measure the attitudes of individuals and groups (classes) towards school specific objects and roles. The results are presented in a matrix with traffic light coding showing green for a supportive environment, yellow for a neutral or slightly declining environment and red for a counter-productive environment.
We are able to distinguish between 8 types of class environments. The green types add together to define a contributing environment, the yellow types add together to define a neutral or a slightly declining environment and the reds add together to define a counter-productive environment.
For the example above we can see that for the Head Teacher Class 4A’s relationship needs attention. We can also see that Class 6A and Boys have a neutral or potentially declining relationship with the Head Teacher.
Classes 1A, 2A, 3A, 5A, 8A and girls have a productive relationship with the Head Teacher.
Class 7A has insufficient responses from students (less than 80% in the class) to be statistically and psychologically rigorous.
See all the types of interaction that we measure here;
Potential of risk behaviour - the concept
Behavioural risks are a threat to classes and the effectivity of the work within lessons. If the group has a high behavioural risk then it is natural to tend to misbehave.
Any group has mostly three types of subgroups according to potential of the risky behaviour.
A "HEALTHY" group has 10% initiators, 30% hesitant and 60% refusers.
With this group there is a risk of failure to comply with societal ethical standards and thus a potential for risky behaviour. The risk behaviour is a stable stereotype for the student and is an integral part of his/her living. Strong Initiators also demonstrate their abilities to attract others and potentially for them to exhibit risky behaviours. Change is possible only with external help and / or after a key life situation, when there can be a reduction in risky behaviour. The group of initiators may feel that they want to misbehave.
This group would apply common sense towards risky behaviours and act according to the prevailing conditions. Potential failing to comply in behaviour is irregular, depending on the external conditions and on the prevailing conditions inside the group. The group feels that they may or may not want to misbehave depending on the situation.
This group would exhibit a low risk of failure to comply. They have a good ability to resist the behaviour of the initiators above. This does not mean that they do not experiment at all, or even do not experiment for a while. The dependency is just not building up. The group feels that it does not want to misbehave.
Overall effectivity in School Subjects
The graph above shows a comparison of the overall level of effectivity of teaching and learning in all age groups to an average level (measured in other schools).
This graph shows the overall possibility that systemic bullying can develop in a class. As the cursor hovers over the red or green circle Head Teachers can click on the circle to find more detailed information. The potential bullying detector also shows whether the bullying would result in potentially aggressive behaviour, or whether the relationships between genders are disturbed and whether the school environment and / or teachers have influence on the further development of the situation. For the classes identified as systemic potential bullying we recommend a further bullying detector is run as a separate test. NOTE: WE DO NOT IDENTIFY INDIVIDUALS IN ANY TEST.
The matrix above shows in which classes the effectivity of teaching and learning needs attention. In our example above the Effectivity of Teaching & Learning for English needs attention in Class 4A. Class 7A did not have more than 80% of the students complete the test, and therefore the results are not statistically and psychologically robust.
Interplay of relationships – role-matrix
The graph above lists the interplay of relationships for all key roles at the school across classes. In our example above we can see that the relationships for Head Teacher, Vice-Principals, Teachers etc. with class 1A are contributing to the emergence of skills within the class.
Click here for the definitions of the environments described, e.g. Heaven’s Gate, Rose Tinted Glasses etc.
- Head Teacher
- Form Teacher
- Career Advisor
For each role the graphs show amounts of students in the class and their relevant environment.
Interplay of relationships in the class
This graph shows the type of interplay of relationships in the relevant class along with the detailed information on the amounts and ratios of students in individual types of interplays of relationships.
Every class has a mixture of individuals and responses, and a mixture of the interplay of relationships in the class. Our analysis provides the Head Teacher with an overview of the class.
Potential of behavioural risks in the class
These graphs show how will the class misbehave if endangered, what are the group attitudes to individual types of risk behaviour and which factors can help in keeping the class safe.
The Awareness graph shows in which types of behaviour the class perceives the specific behaviour as INAPPROPRIATE.
The Risk Key Factors graph shows factors, which can have influence on diminishing or supporting the development of the risk behaviour. Their values can be in four segments:
- Under 25% = actively supporting NOT risky behaviour
- 25% - 50% = passively supporting NOT risky behaviour
- 50% - 75% = passively supporting misbehaviour
- 50% - 75% = passively supporting misbehaviour
- Over 75% = actively supporting misbehaviour
The key factors that can have influence on the further development of the risk behaviour are:
- This factor shows, how the group perceives itself, how the individuals within the group have attitudes towards measured risky behaviour types.
- Physical, Emotional, Mental, Social decisioning models of the group. This factor shows how much do have the decisioning models of the individuals and also the decisioning models of the group influence on further development of risky behaviour.
Free time activities
- This factor shows the influence of "what happens if the members of the group is NOT in the school and NOR in their families"
- This factor shows the influence of the "what happens within the family"
- This factor shows the influence of "what happens at school" on the further development of the risk behaviour.
Group internal losses
This is a check-up factor, which shows an overall perceiving of the group the risk behaviour as RISKY, for this factors there are different explanations of the four segments. They are:
- Under 25% - This group perceives the risk behaviour as ordinary. Very special interventions are required if change is needed.
- 25% - 50% - This group perceives the risk behaviour as mostly ordinary (not risky), a special type of interventions will be required if change is needed.
- 50% - 75% - The group perceives the risk behaviour as mostly risky and most of the common interventions will be functioning.
- Over 75% - The group perceives all the types of risk behaviour as risky, common interventions can bring improvement.
- This is a check-up factor, which shows an overall perceiving of the group the risk behaviour as RISKY, for this factors there are different explanations of the four segments. They are:
Types of Environments
This interplay of relationships is ok. The class accepts the rules and conditions for work. It does not block teaching and learning. The class acts supportively to teaching and learning. It is active, self-correcting and is able to use the teachers initiatives for skills development. It is normal for the class to talk. The class is obeying the rules and it is not its intention to block the teacher or teaching by talking. If the class is blocking the teaching, there may be a different reason other than talking.
Rose Tinted Glasses
This interplay of relationships is challenging for the teachers. The classes are questioning the teaching principles and are insisting on changes to the teaching methodologies. The teachers may be failing to look for compromise or to negotiate. The teacher clearly sees and understands the class attitude to how they are being taught and their relationship with the teacher and this is not blocking the teaching in any way. However the class is not able to accept the internal interplay of relationship between the teacher, the class and the method of teaching. The class usually looks for higher-than-usual tolerance and respect for its requirements. If the teacher insists on his/her model, the class can resign itself to the current teaching and learning method, which has an adverse effect on the effectivity of teaching and learning.
This interplay of relationships is very hard for the class. The communication from the teacher is perceived as uncompromising, intolerant, and showing little respect for the abilities of the class. The class is presented with the teaching, learning behaviours, performance, evaluation and social rules, without appropriate discussion. The teacher is not blocking the class activity, the class is expected to be active, as long as the class accepts the teacher’s conditions and the teaching style. This interplay of relationships is the "authorities" style, which may diminish individual creativity and may not allow for a real relationship between the teacher and the class.
This is a mutually antagonistic, conflictual interplay of relationships. It is not stable and only lasts for a short period of time. Very often this interplay could be perceived as bullying. It is a struggle between the groups inside the class, which is supported by the immense teacher’s pressure on the conditions for learning and teaching. Both sides only highlight their own view, the effectivity of teaching and learning is damaged, and teachers may not be able to find a solution and so resorts to imposing their own conditions on learning and teaching.
In this interplay of relationships the class ignores the teacher. The communication takes place as if in parallel without appropriate interaction between the class and the teacher. The Class is acting independently of the teacher, and they are unable to influence each other in any positive way whatsoever, as their values are totally different. This interplay of relationships is very entrenched and difficult to change. The effectivity of teaching and learning is low. The class does not accept negative evaluations of their work and interaction. It can happen, that the class "just sits there". This model is often common in unplanned substitute teaching.
This interplay of relationships is antagonistic from the teacher’s side. It takes place in a constantly negative environment and enforcing tension (from the teacher). The teacher pushes all performance, evaluation and social rules, uses punishing models and underestimates the class performance, even the class individuals. The class concentrates on blocking the teacher’s activities. This has an adverse effect on the effectivity of teaching and learning. Good results are provided only under extraordinary pressure and threats from the teacher. Statistically, this interplay of relations is very scarce, however it is important to recognise this when it is detected.
This interplay of relationships is challenging for both the teacher and the class. Communication is very difficult. The class does not produce blocking activities which would have an adverse effect on teaching and learning. However they continue to question the teaching principles and are permanently pressurising for changes to the teaching methodology while not being proactive. The class itself does not self-correct. The teacher is under pressure and has consistent requests to change the teaching and learning methodology. The class demand acceptance of their preferred teaching methodology. The class does not have a common feeling of achievement.
Defence in Trenches
In this interplay of relationships the class is attempting to block the teacher’s activities by escaping the teaching methodology, which makes it difficult for the teacher to influence the teaching process. The effectivity of teaching and learning is adversely affected. The class does not give any sign of the effective emergence of skills. There may be some individuals who are learning, however it won’t be obvious. The teacher may belittle the performance and attitude of both individuals and the class. From real life we can prove that this occurs mostly in classes where there are more underperforming or otherwise problematic students, who have been placed there in order to make teaching in other classes easier. The real effect is that it discourages even good teachers.
Types of risk behaviour
Everyone has a certain degree of initiative. This allows us to get excited or become anxious, to take risks for our goals, to take action, to submit to assessment, to belong to a group, or to feel good and be relaxed. It’s about how much of the individual risk factor we have (genotype) and how we use it (phenotype).
This is the need to desire something, to be enthusiastic about something, and to quickly and eagerly have the desire satisfied. If uncontrolled, highly passionate behaviours could result in extreme activities forfeiting restraint. On crossing a certain threshold they may appear uncontrollable resorting to addictive behaviour.
The need for risk, to benefit from the adrenalin rush, and the need to push your limits to how far you can go. On crossing a certain threshold they may appear uncontrollable resorting to extremely risky behaviour.
The need to perform, to make something, to create something, to move something, or to do something. To satisfy this desire requires some action. It may also manifest in excessive reaction, signs of irritation, impulsivity, or violent actions. On crossing a certain threshold they may appear uncontrollable resorting to destructive aggression.
The acceptance of self and peer assessment of social status with self-generated groups. The ability to inspire and learn from one´s surroundings. An acceptable and effective way to pick up ideas, knowledge and opinions from others. On crossing a certain threshold they may appear professing others values and plagiarism.
The need to be accepted, to belong to a group, be approved by members resulting in feelings of inclusion and protection. On crossing a certain threshold they may appear uncontrollable resorting to excessive nervousness.
The feel good factors resulting from the way we realise or fall short of one´s initiatives. On crossing a certain threshold they may result in uncontrollable addictive behaviour.
Words used in the survey
I can see, I can hear, I feel, I can, I can’t, I want, I don’t want to, I may, I must not, Myself, My body, My inner self, I care about myself, I speak, I think, Gender, Weather, Partner, Time, Change, Risk, I kiss, I play sports, I tell lies, I cheat, Money, My family, Mum, Dad, Brothers / sisters, Information, Slowness, Speed, Classes, Praise, Property, Boys, Girls, My close friends, I create, Nature, Holiday, Psychologist, Northern Ireland
Risk behaviour topic words
I smoke cigarettes, I drink alcohol, I take drugs, I gamble, I steal, I am aggressive, My pain, My fear, Revenge, My fault, I am punished, I am ashamed, My defence
Keywords for effectivity of teaching
Keywords for effectivity of teacI am being taught, I am learning, To be taught, To learn, Learning, Education, Computers, Internet, Textbooks, Workbooks, Interactive whiteboard
Gym, Our classroom, Corridors, Principal´s office, Our school, Specialist classrooms, Changing rooms, Our chairs and desks, Toilets, Dining Hall
The school team
Head Teacher, Vice-principals, Career advisor, Form teacher, Classmates, Classroom assistant, Teachers
School manageent tools
School rules, Parent/Teacher meetings, School inspection, School timetable, Examination rules, Student council, Board of governors
Management and evaluation of teaching
Certificate, Marks, Oral exam, Repetition, Individual work, Exams, Lesson, Group work
Universities, Colleges, Commercial companies, Entrance exams, Jobcentre
Art, Careers, Employability, English, French, Games, Geography, History, Home economics, ICT, Learn 2 Learn, Library, Mathematics, Media studies, Religious Education, Science, Technology